How Many Dimensions Really Are There?
It is hard to just tell you the answer to this question because there are many different answers. Physicists have many different theories on how many dimensions there may be in the universe. Before we begin, let me explain that dimensions are in the fabric of space time, which is a field that everything in the universe move through, differently. This field is a certain amount of dimensions, there are space dimensions and time dimensions. No one knows for sure how many there are of each. So let me begin by telling you what we KNOW for sure and then we can talk about theories.
What We Know
We know that there are a total of four dimensions. Three of these are the dimensions that most people are familiar with, they are dimensions of space and are length, width, and height. The fourth dimension is a dimension of time, not space. However, it is very possible that there may be a fourth dimension of space. The image above is called a tesseract, a tesseract is a conceptualization of a four dimensional dimensional cube. You see, if you have never experienced another dimension before, you can not fully imagine what it really would look like to be in that dimension. Many people don’t believe in extra dimensions because they don’t understand that it is impossible to imagine what extra dimensions look like. Instead of coming to the logical conclusion that higher dimensions are existential to them and that they can’t visualize them unless they experience them, they think that higher dimensions are impossible. We do not know for sure that there are more than three spatial dimensions (and one time dimension), but increasing mathematical evidence suggests that there may be as many as ten spatial dimensions.
The Possibility Of Extra Dimensions
I could talk all day about string theory, but right now I just want to focus on a specific idea in string theory, that idea being extra dimensions. If you want to learn more about string theory, click this link: http://scienceshockwave.com/post/60701652108 String theory has NO experimental evidence, yet many people are convinced that string theory is right and will one day be proven so. In order for string theory to accomplish its goal of grand unification (which you can also read about in the link above), the theory uses many phenomenon, one of which being extra dimensions. This may sound crazy because how can there be extra dimensions if we have not seen them? String theorists claim that these extra dimensions are very, very small, curled up in the fabric of space time. As we said, dimensions are the planes of existence space and time exist in. Imagine we are just looking at the fabric of space time, we see a three dimensional smooth plane like you see here:
If we zoom in further on this plane, we will see the same thing, what string theorists are proposing is that if we zoomed in far enough, we would see something like this:
Those are called Calabi-Yau manifolds, they are a way physicists can represent 10 spatial dimensions in a three dimensional illustration. The reason for ten dimensions and not any other number is that the math simply does not work with any other amount of dimensions. String theorists think that the fabric of space time exists in 10 spatial dimensions at the smallest distances and that we never interact with these dimensions because we are not small enough to. If we shrunk down to the size of these dimensions, in theory, we would be able to circumnavigate these dimensions. String theorists use extra dimensions in their equations in order to come up for many explanations in physics which I dont want to get into right now. If you want to learn about these you can read the article I linked above: http://scienceshockwave.com/post/60701652108